Nancy L. Shinowara, Ph.D., is director of the Spinal Cord and Musculoskeletal Disorders and Assistive Devices Program. Prior to joining the Center in 2003, she was with the NIH Center for Scientific Review for nearly eight years, serving as scientific review administrator for several study sections, including those for small business proposals in rehabilitation medicine and orthopedic medicine, and special reviews for grant mechanisms involving biotechnology and bioengineering. Dr. Shinowara received her bachelor's in biology from Mount Holyoke College and her Ph.D. from Northwestern University in biological sciences/neurosciences; she was also a Spencer Foundation Fellow in the Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, and a senior staff fellow in the Laboratory of Neuroscience at the National Institute of Aging. Prior to returning to NIH, Dr. Shinowara was assistant professor of medicine at SUNY Stony Brook and director of Renal Cell Biology and Electron Microscopy at Winthrop University Hospital in Mineola, New York. Her research interests include: functional morphology of peripheral nerve, neuromuscular junction, and intercellular junctions; and the cell biology and permeability mechanisms of the blood brain, eye, and peripheral nerve barrier systems and renal epithelia.